Peel the pears and then split each one lengthwise down the middle. Carefully scoop out the seeds and cores of the pears.
Combine the wine, water, sugar, orange and lemon peels, cinnamon stick, and vanilla in a saucepan just large enough to hold the eight pear halves. Bring the wine syrup to a boil over high heat, then lower the heat so the syrup is just barely simmering. Add the pears and poach them in the syrup for 12-15 minutes, depending on how ripe your pears were. Check them with a knife to see if they are tender all the way through. Once they are, remove the pears from the syrup with a slotted spoon and let them cool.
Bring the syrup back to a boil and cook it down until the the syrup thickens and comes to 220F on a thermometer. This will take 10-12 minutes. Strain the syrup into a bowl and refrigerate until chilled.
To make the mascarpone cream: With a mixer, beat together 1/2 cup of the chilled syrup with the mascarpone. Set that aside. Pour the cream into a large bowl and beat with the mixer on high until you have stiff peaks. Add the mascarpone to the the cream and beat it together. Put the mascarpone cream in the fridge until you are ready to use it.
To made the chocolate sauce: Combine the chopped chocolate and cocoa powder in a medium bowl. Heat the cream in a small saucepan until boiling. Pour the hot cream over the chocolate and let it sit for about a minute, until the chocolate is softened. Whisk together the chocolate and cream until smooth. Mix in the vanilla.
To assemble: Spoon out some chocolate sauce into the middle of each plate. Place a pear half on top of the chocolate. Spoon mascarpone cream in the middle of each pear and then drizzle more chocolate sauce over the top.